2016年2月22日 星期一

《中西思維隨筆》:011.「姜太公」與「特拉敘布洛斯」(怎樣對付無法管教者)


  前篇的關鍵字是「海盜、魚鱉」,這兩件事物不免就讓人想起了倭寇。於是又讓人想起日本人在公海中違反華盛頓公約捕鯨的偉業,或者在和歌山太地町漁村居民屠殺海豚的壯觀史詩(死屍)場面(為此日本還曾幾度禁止《海豚灣》(The Cove)這個描述和歌山漁民屠殺海豚的記錄片在日本的電影院播放,以免以後生魚片沒銷了!)。世界史上,唯一與日本人有的拼的,大概是丹麥人。丹麥不僅也是A片的重要產地,更盛行在海灣中大舉屠殺抹香鯨,其史詩(死屍)場面之壯觀,堪與和歌山相比拼。
  魚鱉本身做為關鍵字,除了讓人想到大舉屠殺大型魚類這等殘忍之事,也能讓人想到釣魚這種風雅之事。當然我們不會去討論有些民族在大海中捕鯨捕的不過癮,以至於連浮在油田上面可以釣魚的島都要撈走了這種殺風景的事。不過這個善於捕殺鯨魚的民族一方面在捕鯨時公然違背華盛頓公約,卻又在捕島時央求華盛頓號來保護它,不知華盛頓地下有知,將作何感想?
  在中國的歷史中,最會釣魚的人,非姜太公莫屬了。當年他在渭水河畔釣魚,就把一條最大的魚釣到了,那隻比鯨魚還大的魚就是周文王姬昌。
  姬昌被姜太公釣到,或者姬昌也釣到了姜太公以後,就重用了姜太公,並派他前往殷朝進行顛覆政權的間諜工作。顛覆活動一直持續到周武王姬發繼位之後,殷朝已經被搞得民不聊生。時機也終於成熟了。於是周武王在姜太公的幫助之下,領兵攻滅了殷朝,建立了周朝。而姜太公也因為幫助周武王完成了這個偉大的功業而被封於齊國,成為齊國的開國始祖。之所以選擇把姜太公封在這個靠海的國家,顯然跟他善於釣魚不 無關係!
  而這次要提到的故事也就是在姜太公被封為齊國君主之後發生的。當時齊國東海上有居士叫做狂矞、華士,這兩兄弟互相商議說:「我們不向天子稱臣,不跟諸侯為友,自己耕作來填飽肚子,自己挖掘井水來飲用止渴。我們不求於人啊!沒有高尚的名聲,沒有君王的俸祿,不靠做官過活而靠力氣過活。」
  姜太公知道了這件事,在他到達齊國營丘一地的時候,便派遣官吏把他們抓來殺了。
  周公在魯國聽到這件事之後,緊急派遣使者前來詢問姜太公說:「這兩位是賢人啊!今日接收齊國,卻殺了賢人,這是為了什麼?」
  姜太公回答說:「狂矞這兩兄弟,商議不向天子稱臣,不跟諸侯為友。我恐怕他擾亂我的法律、變更我的教導啊!所以把他們兩個抓來做為我第一個開刀的對象!今天有一匹馬在這裡,牠長得很像一隻千里馬,然而驅趕牠 ,牠不前進;牽拉牠,牠不向前,雖然是卑賤的奴隸也不會讓這樣的馬來幫他拖拉車子啊!」
  還有一次,周武王問姜太公說:「我想要用極少的時間洞悉用人的要點?」姜太公回答說:「賞賜如山一樣高,刑罰如谷一樣深。使用賞罰最高明的是沒有過失,其次是有過失而加以彌補。使人民不能對賞罰的結果私自議論。那些該罰而請求不罰的,處死;那些該賞而請求不賞的,處死。」
  從西周到東周,這種對待無法管教的人才也好、非人才也好的態度,其實沒有多大改變。譬如那春秋末年晏嬰「二桃殺三士」,他所殺的就是三個無法管教的勇士。往後到了戰國末年,趙威后(趙惠文王的王后)也有一段相近的談話。
  趙威后是一個強悍的女性,趙惠文王去世時年紀尚輕,大概只有三十幾歲,一度臨朝聽政。一次齊國派使者前來趙國,趙威后便問齊國使者:「這一年的農作物的狀況還好吧?人民百姓的狀況還好吧?齊王的狀況還好吧?」
  齊國使者一聽趙威后這樣問,心中的不爽快全都寫到了臉上,對趙威后說道:「臣奉命出使威后,威后現在不先問齊王,反倒先問起農作物與百姓,這豈非是先卑賤的而後尊貴的嗎?」
  趙威后說:「不然。如果沒有農作物,哪裡有人民?(沒飯吃當然沒有人可活)如果沒有人民,哪有君王?所以發問問題哪有捨去根本而問那些末梢之事的道理!」接著又問了處士鍾離子、葉陽子、北宮之女嬰兒子還好吧,說這三個人都是幫助齊國、對齊國社會有益的賢人,何以至今都還沒有當官?最後問的這個問題便與本文相關了,她問:「於陵子仲還活著嗎?這個人啊!對上不臣服於君王,對下不治理自己的家庭,對中不與諸侯結交。這是領導人民往沒有用的方向走去的人啊!為何至今還不殺掉他呢?」
  其實,這種處理無法管教的人才的方式,在古代的軍隊中最為常見,魏國大將吳起便是箇中喬楚。有一次,吳起率軍與秦國軍隊交戰,尚未發布進攻的指令,一個勇士受不了自己的勇敢,未等命令,就自己衝出去砍了兩顆敵人的首級回來。吳起馬上叫軍吏把他抓去砍了,軍吏勸諫吳起說:「這個人是材士(有才華的士人)啊!不可斬啊!」吳起回答:「他確實是個材士啊!但這卻不是我的命令啊!」便把他砍了。
  韓非子後來直接提出:「賞之譽之不勸,罰之毀之不畏,四者加焉不變,則其除之。(賞賜他、讚譽他,都無法激勵他;懲罰他、毀謗他,都無法使他畏懼。這四件事加在他身上,都無法改變他,那就把他除掉吧!)」這種人因為沒法加以控制駕馭,所以留下他,就好像在身邊安置一顆不定時炸戰一樣,有風險、有害處,不如把他殺了。
  西方的歷史中,也是不乏其例的。有一回科林斯(Corinthians)的僭主佩利安多洛斯(Periander)派遣一位使者到米利都僭主特拉敘布洛斯(Thrasybulus)那裡討教治理城邦的方法。特拉敘布洛斯只是把使者領到一塊穀地上,然後邊走邊把那些長得比別的穗子高的穗子都剪下並拋掉,整片田地都這樣被他破壞後,他就把使者打發走了。使者回到了科林斯,將詳情稟報後,佩利安多洛斯便明白了特拉敘布洛斯的意思,於是他便把城邦中那些勢力突出的貴族,一個一個消滅了,個性也從此開始變的殘暴起來。
  另一個例子,是羅馬王政時代的最後一位國王(第七任)小塔克文(Lucius Tarquinius Superbus)的故事。他尚未在位前,他的父親老塔克文(第五任羅馬王)為了除掉加比的頭目們,又不想讓這件事洩漏出去,於是只是把小塔克文派來請示的使者帶到了花園裡,也不說什麼話,只是在那邊一邊散步,一邊用小樹枝把那些長得最高的罌粟花的莖頭都摧毀掉,然後就把使者打發回去了。使者回去後,只好把自己所見轉告了小塔克文,小塔克文便明白了老塔克文的意思。最後便把那些加比的頭目們都殺掉了。
 

(老塔克文辣手摧花的片段)


  後來小塔克文變成羅馬王之後,也變得殘暴起來。或者殘暴本來就是他的本性也未可知。但他之所以被推翻,卻是因為一樁強暴案。原來有一次,正當羅馬軍隊正在圍攻一座城池時,他為了跟自己的堂兄弟科拉蒂努斯(Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus)比賽誰的妻子比較賢慧,於是偷偷跑回去兩人的家中查看狀況,結果小塔克文的妻子正在舉辦宴會,而科拉蒂努斯的妻子盧克萊西亞(Lucretia)卻正在紡紗。勝負立判。而小塔克文也對女人產生了莫名的欲望。一次便利用機會,想要強暴她,盧克萊西亞不願妥協,結果小塔克文便威脅她,如果她不從,她就要在強暴她之後,把她的頭跺下來,並且去殺了一名奴隸把他們綁在一起,說成是兩人通姦而被他撞見,所以把他們都殺了。盧克萊西亞為了保住名節,只好妥協。小塔克文完事之後,便離開了。盧克萊西亞就去找他的丈夫哭訴,便用一把劍往自己的胸膛就刺了下去,自殺了。科拉蒂努斯當然不願善罷甘休,於是聯合了諸人的力量,在前509年推翻了小塔克文殘暴的統治,結束了羅馬王政時代。從此羅馬開始了兩名執政官(Praetores)當頭,由貴族掌權的羅馬共和時代。
 

(圖中躺著的就是盧克萊西亞)


  歷史往往是因為小事而改變。因為小事太小了,以至於大家便忘了去防範它!最後便一發不可收拾了。這也就是之前常常提到的蝴蝶效應問題。古代有名的例子莫過於兩個桑女爭奪桑葉的事了。你說兩個桑女爭奪桑葉又能惹出什麼事呢?答案是:吳楚之間因此爆發了大戰。這件事,以後還會再談到,暫且按下。

附註:
  《暗箭》中雖然不會出現吳起這位距當時已經過世二三十年的老前輩,不過其中很多元素都是從他身上引發出來的。至於那韓非也算是吳起的徒孫。兩人的下場都是中暗箭死的。至於姜太公所建立的齊國稱為「姜齊」,齊國政權往後在戰國時代被田氏篡奪了,史稱為「田齊」。即將登場的齊威王、田忌就都是田氏族人,當時齊國由田氏掌權,因此到時讀者們將會看到許多的田氏要角出現。三家分晉、田氏篡齊都是戰國初期數一數二的大事,往後在《暗箭》中還有一場政權轉移的戲碼會出現,由於涉及劇透,就不多說了。
 

參考資料:

〈韓非子.外儲說右上〉:
  太公望東封於齊,齊東海上有居士曰狂矞、華士,昆弟二人者立議曰:「吾不臣天子,不友諸侯,耕作而食之,掘井而飲之,吾無求於人也。無上之名,無君之祿,不事仕而事力。」太公望至於營丘,使吏執殺之以為首誅。周公旦從魯聞之,發急傳而問之曰:「夫二子,賢者也。今日饗國而殺賢者,何也﹖」太公望曰:「是昆弟二人立議曰:『吾不臣天子,不友諸侯,耕作而食之,掘井而飲之,吾無求於人也,無上之名,無君之祿,不事仕而事力。』彼不臣天子者,是望不得而臣也。不友諸侯者,是望不得而使也。耕作而食之,掘井而飲之,無求於人者,是望不得以賞罰勸禁也。且無上名,雖知、不為望用;不仰君祿,雖賢、不為望功。不仕則不治,不任則不忠。且先王之所以使其臣民者,非爵祿則刑罰也。今四者不足以使之,則望當誰為君乎﹖不服兵革而顯,不親耕耨而名,又所以教於國也。今有馬於此,如驥之狀者,天下之至良也。然而驅之不前,卻之不止,左之不左,右之不右,則臧獲雖賤,不託其足。臧獲之所願託其足於驥者,以驥之可以追利辟害也。今不為人用,臧獲雖賤,不託其足焉。已自謂以為世之賢士,而不為主用,行極賢而不用於君,此非明主之所臣也,亦驥之不可左右矣,是以誅之。」
  一曰。太公望東封於齊,海上有賢者狂矞,太公望聞之往請焉,三卻馬於門而狂矞不報見也,太公望誅之。當是時也,周公旦在魯,馳往止之,比至,已誅之矣。周公旦曰:「狂矞,天下賢者也,夫子何為誅之﹖」太公望曰:「狂矞也議不臣天子,不友諸侯,吾恐其亂法易教也,故以為首誅。今有馬於此,形容似驥也,然驅之不往,引之不前,雖臧獲不託足以旋其軫也。」

〈戰國策.齊策四.齊王使使者問趙威后〉:
  齊王使使者問趙威后。書未發,威后問使者曰:「歲亦無恙耶?民亦無恙耶?王亦無恙耶?」使者不說,曰:「臣奉使使威后,今不問王,而先問歲與民,豈先賤而後尊貴者乎?」威后曰:「不然。苟無歲,何以有民?苟無民,何以有君?故有問舍本而問末者耶?」乃進而問之曰:「齊有處士曰鍾離子,無恙耶?是其為人也,有糧者亦食,無糧者亦食;有衣者亦衣,無衣者亦衣。是助王養其民也,何以至今不業也?葉陽子無恙乎?是其為人,哀鰥寡,卹孤獨,振困窮,補不足。是助王息其民者也,何以至今不業也?北宮之女嬰兒子無恙耶?徹其環瑱,至老不嫁,以養父母。是皆率民而出於孝情者也,胡為至今不朝也?此二士弗業,一女不朝,何以王齊國,子萬民乎?於陵子仲尚存乎?是其為人也,上不臣於王,下不治其家,中不索交諸侯。此率民而出於無用者,何為至今不殺乎?」

〈尉繚子.武議〉:
  吳起與秦戰未合,一夫不勝其勇,前獲雙首而還。吳起立斬之。軍吏諫曰:「此材士也,不可斬!」起曰:「材士則是矣,非吾令也。」斬之。

〈尉繚子.兵教下〉:
  武王問太公望曰:「吾欲少間而極用人之要?」望對曰:「賞如山,罰如谿。太上無過,其次補過。使人無得私語。諸罰而請不罰者,死;諸賞而請不賞者,死。」

〈荀子.議兵〉:
臨武君曰:「善!請問王者之軍制?」孫卿子曰:「將死鼓,吏死職,士大夫死行列。聞鼓聲而進,聞金聲而退,順命為上,有功次之。」

〈韓非子.外儲說右上〉:
  賞之譽之不勸,罰之毀之不畏,四者加焉不變,則其除之。

〈韓非子.說疑〉:
  若夫許由、續牙、晉伯陽、秦顛頡、衛僑如、狐不稽、重明、董不識、卞隨、務光、伯夷、叔齊,此十二人者,皆上見利不喜,下臨難不恐,或與之天下而不取,有萃辱之名,則不樂食穀之利。夫見利不喜,上雖厚賞無以勸之;臨難不恐,上雖嚴刑無以威之;此之謂不令之民也。此十二人者,或伏死於窟穴,或槁死於草木,或飢餓於山谷,或沉溺於水泉。有民如此,先古聖王皆不能臣,當今之世,將安用之?


希羅多德《歷史》:
Herodotus
The History
The Fifth Book, Entitled
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See there comes to my dwelling a man much favour’d of fortune,
Cypselus, son of Aetion, and king of the glorious Corinth-
He and his children too, but not his children’s children.

Such was the oracle; and Cypselus put so much faith in it that he forthwith made his attempt, and thereby became master of Corinth. Having thus got the tyranny, he showed himself a harsh ruler– many of the Corinthians he drove into banishment, many he deprived of their fortunes, and a still greater number of their lives. (SS 6.) His reign lasted thirty years, and was prosperous to its close; insomuch that he left the government to Periander, his son. This prince at the beginning of his reign was of a milder temper than his father; but after he corresponded by means of messengers with Thrasybulus, tyrant of Miletus, he became even more sanguinary. On one occasion he sent a herald to ask Thrasybulus what mode of government it was safest to set up in order to rule with honour. Thrasybulus led the messenger without the city, and took him into a field of corn, through which he began to walk, while he asked him again and again concerning his coming from Corinth, ever as he went breaking off and throwing away all such ears of corn as over–topped the rest. In this way he went through the whole field, and destroyed all the best and richest part of the crop; then, without a word, he sent the messenger back. On the return of the man to Corinth, Periander was eager to know what Thrasybulus had counselled, but the messenger reported that he had said nothing; and he wondered that Periander had sent him to so strange a man, who seemed to have lost his senses, since he did nothing but destroy his own property. And upon this he told how Thrasybulus had behaved at the interview. (SS 7.) Periander, perceiving what the action meant, and knowing that Thrasybulus advised the destruction of all the leading citizens, treated his subjects from this time forward with the very greatest cruelty. Where Cypselus had spared any, and had neither put them to death nor banished them, Periander completed what his father had left unfinished. One day he stripped all the women of Corinth stark naked, for the sake of his own wife Melissa. He had sent messengers into Thesprotia to consult the oracle of the dead upon the Acheron concerning a pledge which had been given into his charge by a stranger, and Melissa appeared, but refused to speak or tell where the pledge was– ‘she was chill,’ she said, ‘having no clothes; the garments buried with her were of no manner of use, since they had not been burnt. And this should be her token to Periander, that what she said was true– the oven was cold when he baked his loaves in it.’ When this message was brought him, Periander knew the token; wherefore he straightway made proclamation, that all the wives of the Corinthians should go forth to the temple of Juno. So the women apparelled themselves in their bravest, and went forth, as if to a festival. Then, with the help of his guards, whom he had placed for the purpose, he stripped them one and all, making no difference between the free women and the slaves; and, taking their clothes to a pit, he called on the name of Melissa, and burnt the whole heap. This done, he sent a second time to the oracle; and Melissa’s ghost told him where he would find the stranger’s pledge. Such, O Lacedaemonians! is tyranny, and such are the deeds which spring from it. We Corinthians marvelled greatly when we first knew of your having sent for Hippias; and now it surprises us still more to hear you speak as you do. We adjure you, by the common gods of Greece, plant not despots in her cities. If however you are determined, if you persist, against all justice, in seeking to restore Hippias– know, at least, that the Corinthians will not approve your conduct.” 

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